Mihajlo Risteski, Stephen Woodward, Marin Ježić, Rade Rusevski, Biljana Kuzmanovska, Kiril Sotirovski


From 2013–2017, 11 chestnut populations and 16 apple orchards/plantations in Macedonia were examined for health; soil, root and bark samples were collected from trees expressing symptoms regarded as Phytophthora specific. Using leaf baits of Prunus laurocerasus and selective V8 Agar (PARPNH), 19 pure Phytophthora sp. cultures were isolated and identified as P. cactorum by ITS sequencing. Sixteen isolates were from apple trees and 3 from chestnut trees. Phylogenetic analyses suggested slight distance between P. cactorum isolates originating from chestnut trees compared to those from apple orchards. Assessment of pathogenicity using chestnuts twigs showed no differences be-tween P. cactorum isolates from the two tree host species.


Malus spp.; Castanea sativa; pathogenicity; phylogenetic analysis

Full Text:



K. Yoshida et al., The rise and fall of the Phytophthora infestans lineage that triggered the Irish potato famine. Elife 2 (2013), pp. e00731.

D. Erwin, O. Ribeiro. (APS Press), 1996), pp.

G. Waterhouse, J. Waterston, Phytophthora cactorum. CMI Descriptions of pathogenic fungi and bacteria, (1966), pp. 2.

T. Jung, H. Blaschke, P. Neumann, Isolation, identification and pathogenicity of Phytophthora species from declining oak stands. European Journal of Forest Pathology 26 (1996), pp. 253–272.

J. Hantula, A. Lilja, H. Nuorteva, P. Parikka, S. Werres, Pathogenicity, morphology and genetic variation of Phytophthora cactorum from strawberry, apple, rhododendron, and silver birch. Mycological Research 104 (2000), pp. 1062–1068.

A. Vettraino, G. Natili, N. Anselmi, A. Vannini, Recovery and pathogenicity of Phytophthora species associated with a resurgence of ink disease in Castanea sativa in Italy. Plant Pathology 50 (2001), pp. 90–96.

e. link,

G. M. Waterhouse, Key to the species of Phytophthora de Barry. (Commonwealth Mycological Institute; England, 1963).

D. J. Stamps, G. M. Waterhouse, F. J. Newhook, G. S. Hall, Revised tabular key to the species of Phytophthora. Mycological papers, CAB Inter-national, Wallingford Oxon 162 (1990), pp. 1–28.

L. Leonian, Identification of Phytophthora species. West Virginia Agriculture Experiment Station Bulletin. 262 (1934), pp. 2–36.

P. Oudemans, M. D. Coffey, A revised systematics of twelve papillate Phytophthora species based on isozyme analysis. Mycological Research 95 (1991), pp. 1025–1046.

H. Förster, M. D. Coffey, Approaches to the taxonomy of Phytophthora using polymorphisms in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Phytophthora, (1991), pp. 164–183.

C. Brasier, Phytophthora biodiversity: how many Phytophthora species are there. Phytophthoras in Forests and Natural Ecosystems (eds.: EM Goheen, SJ Frankel). Albany, USDA Forest Service. General Technical Report, PSW-GTR-221, (2009), pp. 101–115.

J. Nechwatal et al., The morphology, behaviour and molecular phylogeny of Phytophthora taxon Salixsoil and its redesignation as Phytophthora lacustris sp. nov. Plant Pathology, (2012), pp. 355–369.

L. P. N. M. Kroon, H. Brouwer, A. W. A. M. de Cock, F. Govers, The genus Phytophthora anno 2012. Phytopathology 102 (2012), pp. 348–364.

F. N. Martin, J. E. Blair, M. D. Coffey, A combined mitochondrial and nuclear multilocus phylogeny of the genus Phytophthora. Fungal Genetics and Biology 66 (2014), pp. 19–32.

L. P. N. M. Kroon, F. T. Bakker, G. B. M. van den Bosch, P. J. M. Bonants, W. G. Flier, Phylogenetic analysis of Phytophthora species based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Fungal Genetics and Biology 41 (2004), pp. 766–782.

T. Jung, H. Blaschke, Phytophthora root rot in declining forest trees. PHYTON-HORN- 36 (1996), pp. 95–102.

T. Jung, H. Blaschke, W. Oßwald, Involvement of soilborne Phytophthora species in Central European oak decline and the effect of site factors on the disease. Plant Pathology 49 (2000), pp. 706–718.

T. Jung, T. I. Burgess, Re-evaluation of Phytophthora citricola isolates from multiple woody hosts in Europe and North America reveals a new species, Phytophthora plurivora sp. nov. Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi 22 (2009), pp. 95–110.

P. J. Ann, W. H. Ko, Growth Rate and Colony Morphology of Progenies of Zoospores and Selfed Oospores of Phytophthora parasitica. Mycologia 82 (1990), pp. 693–697.

T. White, T. d. Bruns, S. Lee, Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Eds., MA Innis, DH Gelfand, JJ Sninsky, and TJ White. Academic Press, New York, (1990), pp. 315–322.

D. Cooke, J. Duncan, N. Williams, M. Weerdt, P. Bonants, Identification of Phytophthora species on the basis of restriction enzyme fragment analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal RNA. EPPO Bulletin 30 (2000), pp. 519–523.

Z. Zhang, S. Schwartz, L. Wagner, W. Miller, A greedy algorithm for aligning DNA sequences. Journal of Computational biology 7 (2000), pp. 203–214.

S. Kumar, M. Nei, J. Dudley, K. Tamura, MEGA: a biologist-centric software for evolutionary analysis of DNA and protein sequences. Briefings in bioinformatics 9 (2008), pp. 299–306.

T. Jung, J. Nechwatal, Phytophthora gallica sp. nov., a new species from rhizosphere soil of declining oak and reed stands in France and Germany. Mycological Research 112 (2008), pp. 1195–1205.

T. Thomidis, Variability in pathogenicity among Greek isolates of Phytophthora cactorum to four peach rootstocks. Australian journal of experimental agriculture 43 (2003), pp. 99–103.

T. Thomidis, Seasonal variation in crown rot of GF677 and KID I peach rootstocks by Phytophthora cactorum, P. citrophthora and P. syringae. Phyto-pathologia Mediterranea 39 (2000), pp. 396–403.

T. Thomidis, T. Sotiropoulos, Pathogenicity of 11 Phytophthora species on CAB‐6P cherry rootstock. (2003).

T. Thomidis, I. Karayiannis, C. Tsipouridis, Susceptibility of thirty cherry genotypes on Phytophthora cactorum, P. citrophthora, P. citricola and P. parasitica. Journal of phytopathology 156 (2008), pp. 446–451.

T. Thomidis, Testing variability in pathogenicity ofPhytophthora cactorum, P. citrophthora andP. syringae to apple, pear, peach, cherry and plum rootstocks. Phytoparasitica 29 (2001), pp. 47.

S. Bobev, S. Baeyen, C. Crepel, M. Maes, First report of Phytophthora cactorum on American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in Bulgaria. Plant Disease 87 (2003), pp. 752–752.

M. Nakova, Phytophthora root and crown rot on apples in Bulgaria. Pesticidi i fitomedicina 25 (2010), pp. 43–50.

I. Milenković et al., Morphological and molecular identification of Phytophthora species from maple trees in Serbia. Genetika 46 (2014), pp. 353–368.

N. Keča, I. Milenković, L. Keča, Mycological complex of poplars in Serbia. J. FOR. SCI 61 (2015), pp. 169–174.

I. Milenković, Diversity of species from the Phytophthora genus and their role in the decline of broadleaved forest trees in serbia. University of Belgrade, Faculty of Forestry, 17-07-2015, (2015).

G. Filipovski et al., Soil Maps of the Republic of Macedonia. Agricultural institute - Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, (2015).



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact details

Bul. Krste Misirkov br.2
1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
Tel. ++389 2 3235-400
cell:++389 71 385-106
About the journal

CSNMBS is a part of the MASA Contribution series. Published by the Section Natural, Mathematical and Biotechnical Sciences.
About this site

Maintained by the Researh center for Materials and Enviroment - MANU/MASA.
Site (including the theme) set, adapted by MASA - CSIT.