WEEDS AND WEED MANAGEMENT IN CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE (CA) INFLUENCED BY ITS THREE PILLARS AND HERBICIDES

Zvonko Pacanoski

Abstract


CA is based on three large pillars: reducing or eliminating tilling, covering the soil, diversifying crop rotations. Оne of the most difficult management issues within this system are weeds and proper weed management. CA brings a shift in dynamics of the weed seed bank, weed populations, density and growth, requiring clear understanding and for-mulating a strategy for their management. Crop residues influence weed seed germination and seedling emergence by interfering with sunlight availability and suppression through physical and chemical allelopathic effects. Cover crops are fundamental and sustainable tools to manage weeds reducing their numbers physically and chemically. Diversifica-tion of the crop rotation help to disrupt the growing cycle of weeds, and prevent any weed species to dominate. Herbi-cides are an integral part of weed management in CA, as well. When herbicides are not used at appropriate rates or in rotation caused environmental pollution, weed shift, and resistance development in some weeds.

Keywords


CA; weeds; crop residues; cover crops; crop rotation

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20903/csnmbs.masa.2019.40.2.147

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