INFRARED EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY OF CARBON VAPORS AND PLASMAS, A SHORT OVERVIEW

László Nemes

Abstract


A short review is given about infrared emission spectroscopy of hot carbon vapors and plasmas obtained using Fourier transform infrared emission and laser induced breakdown LIB spectroscopies in the mid-infrared range. Labor-atory FTIR emission spectra contain vibrational bands from fullerenes C60, C70 whereas laboratory mid-infrared LIB spectra show bands that belong to mostly unidentified carbon molecules and clusters. Both kinds of spectra are com-pared to spectral results from infrared astronomy. The spectra are discussed with a view for possible applications in carbon nanostructure research and in infrared astronomy. Possible extensions for laser induced breakdown (plasma) spectroscopy are suggested.

Keywords


Carbon plasma; carbon vapor; cluster; infrared emission spectra; FTIR; LIBS; laser-induced breakdown; astronomy

Full Text:

PDF

References


H. W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. O’Brien, R. F. Curl, R. E. Smalley, C60: Buckminster fullerene, Nature 318 (1985), pp. 162–163.

W. Kraetschmer, L. D. Lamb, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, Solid C60: a new form of carbon, Na-ture 347 (1990), pp. 354–358.

C. S-C. Yang, E. Brown, U. Hommerich, S. B. Trivedi, A. C. Samuels, A. P. Snyder, Mid-infrared Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Emission from Alkali Metal Halides, Applied Spectr. 62 (2008), pp. 714–716.

O. Oyebola, U. Hommerich, E. Brown, C. S.-C. Yang, S.B. Trivedi, A. C. Samuels, A. P. Snyder, Concentration dependent studies on the Laser-In-duced Mid-infrared Emission from KCl-NaCl Tab-lets, Photonic Lett. Poland 3 (2011), pp. 171–174.

C. S.-C. Yang, E. Brown, U. Hommerich, F. Jin, S. B. Trivedi, A. C. Samuels, A. P. Snyder, Long-wave, infrared Laser-induced Breakdown (LIBS) Spectroscopy Emissions from Energetic Materials, Applied Spectr. 66 (2012), pp. 1397–1402.

C. S.-C. Yang, E.Brown, E. Kum-Barimah, U. Hommerich, F. Jin, S. B. Trivedi, A. C. Samuels, A. P. Snyder, Mid-infrared, long wave infrared (4-12 mm) molecular emission signatures from pharma-ceuticals using laser-induced breakdown spectros-copy (LIBS), Applied Spectr. 68 (2014), pp. 226–231.

L. Nemes, Ei Ei Brown, C. S.-C Yang, U. Hom-merich, Mid-infrared emission spectroscopy of car-bon plasma, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 170 (2017), pp. 145–149.

C. I. Frum, R. Engleman, Jr., H. G. Hedderich, P. F. Bernath, L. D. Lamb, D. R. Huffman, The Infrared Emission spectrum of gas-phase C60 (Buckminster fullerene), Chem. Phys. Lett. 176 (1991) pp. 504–508.

L. Nemes, R. S. Ram, P. F. Bernath, F. A. Tinker, M. C. Zumwalt, L. D. Lamb, D. R. Huffman, Gas-phase infrared emission spectra of C60 and C70: Temperature dependent studies, Chem. Phys. Lett. 218 (1994), pp. 295–303.

B. Chase, N. Herron, E. Holler, Vibrational spec-troscopy of fullerenes (C60 and C70), Temperature dependant studies, J. Phys. Chem. 96 (1992) 4262.

M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, P. C. Eklund, Science of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes, Their Properties and Applications, Academic Press, New York, 1995.

R. E. Haufler, J. Conceicao, L. P. F. Chibante, Y. Chai, N. E. Byrne, S. Flanagan, M. M. Haley, S. C. O’Brien, C. Pan, Z. Xiao, W. E. Billups, M. A. Ciufolini, R. H. Hauge, J. L. Margrave, L. J. Wil-son, R. F. Curl, R. E. Smalley, Efficient production of C60 (buckminster fullerene), C60H36 and the solvated buckide ion, J. Phys. Chem. 94 (1990) 8634.

J. Cami, J. Bernard-Salas, E. Peeters, S. E. Malek, Detection of C60 and C70 in a young planetary neb-ula, Science 329 (2010), pp. 1180–1182.

D. A. Garcia-Hernandez, A. Manchado, P. Garcia-Lario, L. Stanghellini, E. Villaver, R. A. Shaw, R. Szczerba, J. V. Perea-Calderon, Formation of full-erenes in H-containing planetary nebulae, Astro-phys. J. Lett., 724 (2010), pp. 39–43.

http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1086/423134/pdf

C. S.-C. Yang, F. Jin, S. Trivedi, Ei Ei Brown, U. Hommeich, J. B. Khurgin, A. C. Samuels, Time-re-solved long-wave infrared laser-induced break-down spectroscopy of inorganic energetic materials by a rapid mercury-cadmium-telluride linear array detection system, Appl. Opt. 55 (2016), pp. 9166–9171.

C. S.-C. Yang, Ei Ei Brown, E. Kumi-Barimah, U. Hommerich, F. Jin, Y. Jia, S. Trivedi, A. I. D’Souza, E. A. Decuir, Jr., P.S. Wijewarnasuriya, A. C. Samuels, Rapid long-wave infrared laser-in-duced breakdown spectroscopy measurements us-ing a mercury-cadmium-telluride linear array detec-tion system, Appl. Opt. 54 (2015), pp. 9695–9702.

A. Kramida, Y. Ralchenko, J. Reader, NIST ASD Team, NIST Atomic Spectra Database, 2014 (ver-sion 5.2).

C. J. Mackie, E. Peeters, C. W. Bauschlicher, Jr., J. Cami, Characterizing the infrared spectra of small, neutral, Fully Dehydrogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Astrophys. J. 799 (2015), pp. 1–11.

D. Strelnikov, R. Reusch, W. Kraetschmer, Assign-ment of carbon containing molecules in cryogenic matrices by selective laser-induced oxidation, J. Phys. Chem. 109 (2005), pp. 7708–7713.

C. D. Chaffee, LIBS continues to evolve, Optics and Photonics News, May 2017, pp. 42–49.

James Webb Space Telescope, https://www.jwst. nasa.gov/




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20903/csnmbs.masa.2017.38.1.98

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.



Contact details

Bul. Krste Misirkov br.2
1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
Tel. ++389 2 3235-400
cell:++389 71 385-106
mail: manu@manu.edu.mk
About the journal

CSNMBS is a part of the MASA Contribution series. Published by the Section Natural, Mathematical and Biotechnical Sciences.
About this site

Maintained by the Researh center for Materials and Enviroment - MANU/MASA.
Site (including the theme) set, adapted by MASA - CSIT.